What is IQ and Which are the most commonly used tests to measure IQ ?
The moment you hear about IQ, the name that comes to your mind is Albert Ensitein. His IQ was around 160 and 190. But it is William James Sidis who holds the record with an IQ score between 250-300. At the age of 11 he presented his study on 4-dimensional physics at Harvard !.
What is IQ
Intelligence Quotient is a measure of a person’s ability to solve complex problems and absorb and memorize new things quickly. It measure’s individual’s intelligence relative to peers of similar age. IQ tests came into existence in France in the 1900s to identify students who required special assistance in schools. Sir Alfred Binet devised the test initially, which was later modified by David Weschler from US. He included 4 areas of intelligence namely verbal Comprehension Index, a Perceptual Reasoning Index, a Working Memory Index, and a Processing Speed Index. According to research studies ,modern IQ test is a good predictor of many life outcomes, including educational and career success, health and longevity.
Most commonly used tests for IQ
- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Stanford-Binet test measure intelligence by assessing five factors including fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing and working memory. Stanford-Binet test is among the most reliable standardized tests currently used in education.
- Universal Nonverbal Intelligence: This test is designed for children and adolescents (5-17 years). This test measures nonverbal intelligence. This test includes 5 subtests namely Symbolic Memory, Spatial Memory, Object Memory, Cube Design, Analogic Reasoning, and Mazes.
- Differential Ability Scales: Differential Ability Scales measure cognitive and achievement levels in children for classification and diagnostic purposes. It consists of 20 subtests, 17 cognitive and 3 achievement subtests yielding an overall cognitive ability score and achievement scores.
- Peabody Individual Achievement Test: The test is useful in screening children for learning disabilities. It assess the children in following areas namely General Information, Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, Mathematics, and Spelling .
- Wechsler Individual Achievement Test: This tool is good to determine child’s performance in reading, maths, written language and oral language. It helps in determining specific learning disability like Dyslexia. The test takes about 30 to 90 minutes and is used for ages 4 years and above.
- Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale : This test is in use from 1955. The test mainly measures Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory and Processing Speed. WAIS is the most frequently administered psychological test.
- Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Disabilities: It is useful in assessing cognitive abilities and achievement among children and adults. It is devised based on Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory. It is a valuable diagnostic tool to identify exceptional children and high incidence disabilities like head injury, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD.
What does the score mean:
- Score of 100 : Average
- Score above 100: High intelligence
- Score above 150: Super Intelligence
- Score below 100: below Average
- Score below 70: Learning disability
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